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Power of Patients- How Do Strokes Affect Men & Women Differently?

Stroke is a leading cause of disability and mortality globally, affecting millions of individuals each year. While strokes can impact both men and women, emerging research suggests that there are notable differences in how strokes manifest and affect each gender. According to the American Heart Association, “Globally, the lifetime risk of stroke (from age 25 years onward) is 25.1% in women and 24.7% in men, but there is substantial regional variation…In the United States, the lifetime risk of stroke is higher in women (20%–21%) than in men (14%–17%), for a 55-year-old individual. Stroke is more likely to be the first manifestation of cardiovascular disease in women, whereas in men, coronary heart disease is more common.” 


Here are some ways the data shows stroke data differentiation for men and women (American Heart Association):


  • In the United States in 2019, stroke ranked as the third leading cause of death among women, whereas it was the fifth leading cause among men. 

  • Women accounted for 57.1% of stroke-related deaths in 2019, representing 6.2% of all female deaths, compared to 4.4% of all male deaths.

  • Collectively, approximately 55,000 more fatal strokes occurred in women annually than in men. 

  • Findings from the 2015 Greater Cincinnati Northern Kentucky Stroke Study (GCNKSS) revealed that stroke case fatality rates in women surpassed those in men for the first time, even after adjusting for age. This trend persisted across the adult lifespan, with strokes constituting a higher proportion of deaths in women than in men (Lichtman et al., unpublished data, 2021).



Figure 1. Sex- and age-specific ranking, percentage, and total number of deaths attributed to cerebrovascular diseases in 2015. Data derived from National Vital Statistics System (NVSS), 2015. LCWK1: deaths, percent of total deaths, and death rates for the 15 leading causes of death in 5-year age groups, by race and sex: United States, 2015. Accessed October 13, 2021. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/dvs/LCWK1_2015.pdf


Understanding these gender distinctions is crucial for improving prevention, diagnosis, and treatment strategies, particularly in the context of brain injuries and traumatic brain injuries (TBIs).


Gender-Specific Risk Factors:


Although many risk factors for stroke are common across genders, certain factors may disproportionately affect men or women. Gender-specific risk factors for stroke encompass a spectrum of biological, hormonal, and lifestyle factors that may predispose individuals to a higher risk of experiencing a stroke. While many risk factors are shared between men and women, certain factors have been observed to have a differential impact based on gender. Understanding these distinctions is vital for tailoring preventive strategies and optimizing stroke care.


Factors that Increase Risk of Stroke in Men:


Men often face a higher prevalence of traditional stroke risk factors, including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, and smoking. These factors contribute to the development of atherosclerosis, a condition characterized by the buildup of plaque in the arteries, increasing the risk of ischemic stroke. Additionally, lifestyle factors such as excessive alcohol consumption and poor dietary habits may further exacerbate these risk factors in men.


Moreover, men tend to exhibit a higher prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a sleep disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of upper airway collapse during sleep, leading to intermittent hypoxia and fragmented sleep. OSA is associated with an increased risk of hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and other cardiovascular conditions, thereby contributing to the overall risk of stroke in men.


Furthermore, occupational factors, such as exposure to environmental pollutants and physical stressors, may also contribute to stroke risk in men. For instance, individuals employed in occupations involving prolonged exposure to heavy physical labor or hazardous chemicals may be at an elevated risk of stroke due to the cumulative effects of these occupational hazards on cardiovascular health.


Factors that Increase Risk of Stroke in Women:


Women, on the other hand, face unique risk factors related to reproductive health and hormonal fluctuations throughout their lifespan. Pregnancy-related conditions, such as preeclampsia and gestational diabetes, have been identified as significant risk factors for stroke in women. Preeclampsia, characterized by high blood pressure and organ dysfunction during pregnancy, is associated with an increased risk of both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, particularly in the postpartum period.


Furthermore, the use of oral contraceptives (birth control pills) and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in menopausal women has been linked to a higher risk of stroke, primarily due to the estrogen content in these medications. Estrogen may influence the coagulation cascade, endothelial function, and vascular tone, potentially contributing to thrombotic events or cerebral vasospasm.


Additionally, women experience unique hormonal fluctuations during menopause, characterized by a decline in estrogen levels. This hormonal transition has been implicated in alterations in lipid metabolism, insulin resistance, and vascular function, all of which may contribute to an increased risk of stroke in postmenopausal women.


Finally, psychosocial factors, such as stress, depression, and socioeconomic status, may also influence stroke risk in women. Chronic stress and depression have been associated with heightened sympathetic activity, inflammation, and dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, all of which can contribute to the development of cardiovascular risk factors and increase the susceptibility to stroke.


In summary, while men and women share many common risk factors for stroke, including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking, gender-specific factors related to reproductive health, hormonal fluctuations, and psychosocial stressors play a significant role in shaping stroke risk in women. Recognizing these differences is crucial for developing targeted prevention strategies and optimizing stroke management in clinical practice.


Differences in Stroke Symptoms Between Men and Women


While the classic symptoms of stroke are well-known and widely recognized, emerging research suggests that there are notable differences in how strokes manifest and present in men and women. Understanding these distinctions is critical for prompt diagnosis and timely intervention, particularly in cases where atypical symptoms may lead to delays in treatment.


Classic Symptoms of Stroke:


Before delving into gender-specific differences, it's essential to review the hallmark symptoms of stroke, often summarized by the acronym FAST:


  • Face Drooping: One side of the face may droop or become numb. Ask the person to smile to check for facial asymmetry.

  • Arm Weakness: One arm may become weak or numb. Ask the person to raise both arms to see if one drifts downward.

  • Speech Difficulty: Speech may be slurred or difficult to understand. Ask the person to repeat a simple sentence to assess for speech abnormalities.

  • Time to Call Emergency Services: If any of these symptoms are present, it's crucial to seek emergency medical attention immediately.


Gender-Specific Differences:


1. Additional and Atypical Symptoms in Women: While men and women may experience the classic stroke symptoms outlined above, women often present with additional or atypical symptoms that may not be immediately recognized as indicative of a stroke. These symptoms can include:


  • Sudden Face and Limb Pain: Women may experience sudden onset pain in the face or limbs, which can be mistaken for other conditions such as migraines or musculoskeletal issues.


  • Hiccups: Persistent hiccups, particularly when accompanied by other neurological symptoms, may signal a stroke in women.


  • Nausea and General Weakness: Women may experience nausea, vomiting, or a generalized feeling of weakness, which can obscure the recognition of stroke symptoms.


  • Chest Pain and Shortness of Breath: Some women may present with chest pain or shortness of breath, mimicking symptoms of a heart attack rather than a stroke.


  • Palpitations: Rapid or irregular heartbeats, along with other neurological symptoms, may indicate a stroke event in women.


2. Delayed Recognition of Symptoms in Women: Research suggests that women are more likely than men to delay seeking medical attention for stroke symptoms. This delay may be attributed to a lack of awareness of stroke risk, misinterpretation of symptoms, or a tendency to prioritize caregiving responsibilities over personal health. Consequently, women may present to the emergency department later than men, resulting in delays in diagnosis and treatment initiation.


3. Influence of Hormonal Factors: Hormonal fluctuations throughout a woman's life, such as those occurring during pregnancy, menstruation, and menopause, may influence stroke symptoms and presentation. For example, fluctuations in estrogen levels have been associated with changes in vascular tone, endothelial function, and coagulation, potentially affecting the clinical manifestations of stroke in women.


4. Sociocultural Factors: Sociocultural factors, including gender roles and healthcare-seeking behavior, may also contribute to differences in symptom recognition and presentation between men and women. Women may be socialized to downplay or dismiss symptoms, leading to delays in seeking medical care.


Recognizing gender-specific differences in stroke symptoms is essential for healthcare providers and the general public alike. By raising awareness of atypical symptoms and addressing sociocultural barriers to timely care-seeking, we can improve outcomes for both male and female stroke patients. Moreover, healthcare professionals should be vigilant for subtle variations in symptom presentation, particularly in women, to ensure prompt diagnosis and appropriate management of stroke events.


Outcome Disparities in Men and Women Experiencing Strokes:

Understanding the gender-specific outcome disparities in stroke is essential for optimizing care and support for individuals affected by this debilitating condition. While both men and women face significant challenges in stroke recovery, emerging research suggests that there are notable differences in post-stroke outcomes based on gender.


1. Survival Rates: Women generally have a higher likelihood of surviving a stroke compared to men. Several factors may contribute to this survival advantage, including differences in stroke subtype distribution, age at onset, and pre-existing comorbidities. However, surviving a stroke does not guarantee a favorable outcome, and women may still face unique challenges in the post-stroke recovery process.


2. Functional Disability and Impairment: Despite higher survival rates, women often experience more severe functional disabilities and impairments following a stroke. Studies have shown that women are more likely to require assistance with activities of daily living (ADLs) and have lower functional independence scores compared to men. These disparities may be attributed to differences in stroke severity, pre-stroke functional status, and response to rehabilitation interventions.


3. Length of Hospital Stay and Discharge Disposition: Women tend to have longer hospital stays and are more likely to be discharged to nursing facilities or other long-term care settings following a stroke. This may reflect the greater functional limitations and caregiving needs experienced by female stroke survivors. Additionally, women may encounter barriers to accessing community-based rehabilitation services, further exacerbating disparities in post-stroke care.


4. Cognitive and Emotional Outcomes: Women are more likely to experience cognitive impairments and emotional disturbances, such as depression and anxiety, following a stroke. These neuropsychiatric sequelae can significantly impact quality of life and hinder the recovery process. Women may also face unique challenges related to social support networks and caregiving responsibilities, which can further contribute to psychological distress and emotional burden post-stroke.


5. Mortality Risk: While women have a higher likelihood of surviving a stroke, they may face an increased risk of mortality in the long term. Several factors, including age, stroke severity, comorbidities, and socioeconomic status, contribute to this elevated mortality risk in female stroke survivors. Addressing these risk factors and providing comprehensive post-stroke care are essential for reducing mortality rates and improving long-term outcomes in women.


6. Hormonal and Reproductive Factors: Hormonal and reproductive factors, such as menopause, hormone replacement therapy, and pregnancy-related complications, may influence post-stroke outcomes in women. Estrogen has been implicated in neuroprotective mechanisms and vascular health, and alterations in estrogen levels during menopause or hormone therapy may affect stroke recovery. Additionally, pregnancy-related conditions, such as preeclampsia and gestational diabetes, can increase the risk of stroke and impact post-stroke outcomes in women.


7. Access to Rehabilitation Services: Women may face barriers to accessing rehabilitation services, including transportation issues, financial constraints, and caregiver responsibilities. Addressing these barriers and implementing gender-sensitive rehabilitation programs are essential for optimizing functional outcomes and promoting independence in female stroke survivors.


Gender-specific outcome disparities in stroke underscore the importance of tailored interventions and support services for male and female stroke survivors. By addressing the unique needs and challenges faced by women in stroke recovery, healthcare providers can improve outcomes and enhance the quality of life for all individuals affected by this devastating condition.


Treatment Response Variations Between Male and Female Patients Suffering from Stroke:

Gender differences may also influence how individuals respond to stroke treatments. Understanding the variations in treatment response based on gender is crucial for optimizing stroke care and improving outcomes for both men and women. While many stroke treatments are effective across genders, emerging research suggests that there are nuanced differences in how men and women respond to certain interventions.


1. Thrombolytic Therapy: Thrombolytic therapy, which involves the administration of clot-busting medications such as tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), is a cornerstone treatment for acute ischemic stroke. However, studies have shown that women may have a higher risk of bleeding complications following thrombolytic therapy compared to men. This heightened risk may be attributed to differences in body weight, vascular anatomy, and hormonal factors. Healthcare providers must carefully weigh the potential benefits and risks of thrombolytic therapy in female stroke patients, particularly those with additional risk factors for bleeding.


2. Endovascular Therapy: Endovascular therapy, including mechanical thrombectomy, has revolutionized the treatment of acute ischemic stroke caused by large vessel occlusion. While endovascular therapy has been shown to be effective in both men and women, there may be variations in treatment outcomes based on gender. Some studies have suggested that women may be less likely to undergo mechanical thrombectomy or experience delays in treatment compared to men. Addressing these disparities in access to endovascular therapy is essential for ensuring equitable stroke care and optimizing treatment outcomes in both genders.


3. Anticoagulant Therapy: Anticoagulant therapy plays a critical role in the management of atrial fibrillation (AF), a common risk factor for ischemic stroke. However, the optimal approach to anticoagulation may differ between men and women. Studies have suggested that women may have a higher risk of bleeding complications with anticoagulant therapy, particularly with vitamin K antagonists such as warfarin. Novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) may offer a safer alternative in both genders, but further research is needed to elucidate any gender-specific differences in treatment response.


4. Rehabilitation Interventions: Rehabilitation plays a central role in stroke recovery, helping patients regain lost function and achieve maximum independence. While the principles of stroke rehabilitation are similar across genders, there may be variations in treatment response and outcomes. For example, women may have different baseline functional status, psychosocial support networks, and caregiving responsibilities compared to men, all of which can influence rehabilitation outcomes. Tailoring rehabilitation interventions to address these gender-specific factors is essential for optimizing functional recovery and enhancing quality of life in stroke survivors.


5. Secondary Prevention Strategies: Secondary prevention strategies, including lifestyle modifications and pharmacological interventions, are essential for reducing the risk of recurrent stroke. While the principles of secondary prevention apply to both genders, there may be variations in treatment response and adherence based on gender. For example, women may be more likely to experience medication side effects or face barriers to adopting healthy lifestyle behaviors. Healthcare providers must take these gender-specific factors into account when implementing secondary prevention strategies and providing ongoing support to stroke survivors.


Understanding the variations in treatment response based on gender is essential for delivering personalized and effective stroke care. By addressing gender-specific factors in treatment decision-making and rehabilitation planning, healthcare providers can optimize outcomes and improve quality of life for both male and female stroke patients. Additionally, further research is needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms driving treatment response variations and develop targeted interventions to address these differences.


Implications for Brain Injury and TBI Specialists

For professionals specializing in brain injuries and TBIs, recognizing gender differences in stroke is paramount for providing comprehensive care to patients. Understanding the gender-specific nuances of stroke has significant implications for brain injury and traumatic brain injury (TBI) specialists, who play a pivotal role in the assessment, management, and rehabilitation of stroke survivors. By recognizing and addressing these differences, specialists can optimize care and improve outcomes for both male and female stroke patients.


1. Comprehensive Risk Assessment: Brain injury and TBI specialists should conduct comprehensive risk assessments that take into account gender-specific factors associated with stroke. This includes evaluating traditional risk factors such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking, as well as unique risk factors such as hormonal fluctuations, pregnancy-related conditions, and reproductive health history in women. By identifying gender-specific risk factors, specialists can develop tailored prevention strategies to mitigate the risk of stroke in their patients.


2. Recognizing Atypical Symptoms: Specialists should be vigilant for atypical stroke symptoms, particularly those more commonly observed in women. This includes symptoms such as sudden face and limb pain, hiccups, nausea, and palpitations, which may not be immediately recognized as indicative of a stroke. By educating patients and caregivers about these atypical symptoms, specialists can facilitate early recognition and prompt medical intervention, potentially minimizing the extent of brain injury and improving long-term outcomes.


3. Gender-Sensitive Rehabilitation: Rehabilitation programs should be gender-sensitive and tailored to address the unique needs and challenges faced by male and female stroke survivors. This includes considering differences in baseline functional status, psychosocial support networks, and caregiving responsibilities between genders. By providing individualized rehabilitation interventions, specialists can optimize functional recovery, enhance quality of life, and promote independence in stroke survivors.


4. Addressing Treatment Disparities: Specialists should strive to address treatment disparities based on gender and ensure equitable access to evidence-based interventions such as thrombolytic therapy, endovascular therapy, and anticoagulant therapy. This may involve advocating for improved access to specialized stroke care services, implementing gender-sensitive treatment protocols, and addressing barriers to care such as transportation issues, financial constraints, and caregiver responsibilities. By promoting equity in stroke care, specialists can improve treatment outcomes and reduce disparities in stroke outcomes between genders.


5. Collaborative Care Approach: Brain injury and TBI specialists should adopt a collaborative care approach that involves multidisciplinary teams comprising neurologists, rehabilitation specialists, nurses, social workers, and other healthcare professionals. By working together, specialists can leverage their expertise and resources to provide comprehensive care that addresses the diverse needs of male and female stroke patients. This includes coordinating rehabilitation services, managing comorbidities, addressing psychosocial concerns, and supporting caregivers throughout the recovery process.


Thus, understanding the gender-specific implications of stroke is essential for brain injury and TBI specialists to optimize care and improve outcomes for their patients. By integrating gender-sensitive approaches into risk assessment, symptom recognition, rehabilitation planning, and treatment delivery, specialists can play a key role in promoting equity and improving quality of life for male and female stroke survivors alike.


How Power of Patients Can Help Even the Playing Field in Stroke-Related Gender Disparities

The Power of Patients® platform offers a unique opportunity to address gender disparities in stroke care by empowering patients and caregivers to take control of their health outcomes. Through its digital health patient-led innovation and resources, Power of Patients® provides a framework for tracking symptoms, accessing education about clinical trials, and exploring treatment options. Here's how the Power of Patients® platform can help even the playing field in stroke-related gender disparities:


1. Tracking Symptoms and Triggers: Patients and caregivers can utilize the Power of Patients® platform to track stroke symptoms and triggers, including both classic and atypical symptoms. By systematically documenting symptom onset, severity, and duration, users can provide valuable insights into the gender-specific presentation of stroke. This data can help healthcare providers recognize patterns, tailor treatment plans, and improve diagnostic accuracy, particularly for women who may experience atypical symptoms.


2. Advocating for Better Healthcare: The platform empowers patients to advocate for their own healthcare outcomes by providing tools to track and monitor their symptoms. By documenting their experiences and sharing this information with their healthcare providers, patients can actively participate in treatment decision-making and ensure that their unique needs are addressed. This proactive approach is especially important for women, who may face delays in diagnosis and treatment due to atypical symptom presentation.


3. Contributing to Research: Through the Power of Patients® platform, users can anonymously contribute their data to the wider community of stroke researchers and healthcare professionals. By sharing their experiences and insights, patients can help researchers better understand the gender-specific factors influencing stroke outcomes and develop targeted interventions to address disparities. This collective data-sharing approach has the potential to drive personalized, value-based care and accelerate advancements in stroke treatment and prevention.


4. Personalized Support: The platform offers personalized support through its 24/7 virtual therapy dog, Sallie™, who guides patients and caregivers through the recovery process. The Sallie™ platform provides a private and secure platform for tracking symptoms, accessing educational resources, and connecting with a supportive community of fellow stroke survivors and caregivers. This personalized approach to stroke management can help users feel empowered, supported, and informed throughout their journey to recovery.


5. Reshaping Clinical Trials: By harnessing the collective power of patient-reported data, the Power of Patients® platform has the potential to reshape and accelerate clinical trials in stroke research. The platform's unique data warehouse of patient-reported symptom and trigger data can be leveraged by researchers, policymakers, and industry professionals to design targeted clinical trials, fund services where patients need them most, and recruit appropriate patients for research studies. This collaborative approach to research has the potential to transform our understanding of stroke and improve outcomes for all patients, regardless of gender.


The Power of Patients® platform offers a powerful tool for addressing gender disparities in stroke care by empowering patients and caregivers to track symptoms, advocate for better healthcare, contribute to research, access personalized support, and reshape clinical trials. By harnessing the collective power of patient-reported data, we can work towards a future where all stroke patients receive equitable, personalized care that meets their unique needs.


Concluding Thoughts on How Strokes Affect Men and Women Differently:

Gender differences play a significant role in shaping the presentation, risk factors, and outcomes of stroke. By understanding these variations, brain injury and TBI specialists can enhance their approach to stroke prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Through targeted interventions and heightened awareness, we can strive towards more equitable outcomes and better support for individuals affected by stroke, irrespective of gender.









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