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Power of Patients® - Head Injuries in Soccer

Soccer, with over 5 billion fans around the world, is the world’s most popular sport (FIFA). According to the Library of Congress Research Guides, “Estimates suggest that there are over 240 million registered players worldwide” and the World Cup is the “ most widely viewed sporting event in the world.” Without a doubt, there is global enthusiasm for the “beautiful game,” a phrase popularized by one of the most celebrated soccer players of all time- Pelé.

With its universal appeal and widespread participation, soccer fosters a vibrant culture of athleticism, camaraderie, and competition. Yet, within the exhilaration of the game lies a sobering reality: the prevalence of head injuries. In this comprehensive guide, we delve into the critical realm of head injury prevention in soccer, exploring the risks, challenges, and strategies for promoting safety. With the invaluable resources and support provided by Power of Patients®, we aim to empower players, coaches, and stakeholders to prioritize player well-being on and off the field.

Head Injuries In Soccer

Understanding the Impact of Head Injuries in Soccer

In the dynamic environment of soccer, players engage in a myriad of activities such as intricate footwork and strategic maneuvers to outplay their opponents. This fast-paced action inherently carries the risk of head trauma. From aerial challenges and physical collisions to headers and falls, the sport's fast-paced nature exposes athletes to potential injury with each match. Unlike non-contact sports, soccer involves frequent aerial challenges, physical collisions, and headers, all of which elevate the risk of head trauma.

Brain Injury Causes in Soccer

Physicality and Contact: Soccer's physical nature, characterized by challenges for possession, aerial duels, and collisions, increases the risk of head injuries among players. High-speed impacts and falls on the pitch can result in concussions and other forms of head trauma.

Heading the Ball: Heading, a fundamental skill in soccer, involves deliberately using the head to control or redirect the ball. While heading is integral to the game, repeated exposure to heading can lead to cumulative head trauma, raising concerns about its long-term effects on player health. 

Goalkeeper Collisions: Goalkeepers, tasked with protecting the goal, are particularly susceptible to head injuries due to collisions with opposing players during aerial challenges or set-piece situations. The physical demands of the position heighten the risk of concussions and other head traumas.

While all of the above events happen in any given soccer game, “...players in positions where heading is common are also more likely to have head to head collisions more often. Although uncommon, most concussive injuries seen in soccer derive from such head to head rather than ball to head contact” (National Library of Medicine). Their research showed that heading a soccer ball results in “head accelerations of less than 10 g (or less than 1000 rad/s2)” which is much lower than the “minimum values for the development of sport related concussion at 40-60 g (or 3500-5000 rad/s2).” However,  a 2023 study at Columbia University Irving Medical Center still found correlation between “soccer heading…[leading] to a decline in brain structure and function over a two-year period.” Regardless of the type of event, enough data correlates serious brain injuries occurring in regular play of the sport, necessitating a deeper understanding of the types of injuries and potential dangers.


Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs), encompassing a spectrum of injuries to the brain caused by external forces, are a significant concern in soccer due to the potential for direct impacts to the head during gameplay. TBIs, including concussions, contusions, and diffuse axonal injuries, can result from various scenarios, such as collisions with other players, head-to-ball contact, or falls onto the pitch. Unlike some injuries that may be immediately visible, TBIs can manifest with subtle symptoms that may go unnoticed or be dismissed as minor discomfort.

Concussions, a common form of head injury in soccer, pose a significant concern due to their immediate impact on player performance and potential long-term repercussions for brain health. Unlike some sports where contact is incidental or infrequent, soccer's continuous play and physicality elevate the likelihood of head injuries. Studies have shown that concussions can result from various scenarios, including collisions with other players during challenges for possession, inadvertent impacts with the ball, or clashes with the ground while attempting headers or aerial duels. According to research published in Neurology Journals, “Among the 53 professional soccer players, 54% experienced one or more soccer-associated concussions with or without loss of consciousness. During their professional careers 79% of the players sustained one or more head-to-head collisions (with or without postconcussive symptoms).”


Concussions occur when the brain experiences sudden acceleration or deceleration within the skull, leading to temporary disruption of normal brain function. Despite their classification as mild traumatic brain injuries, concussions can have profound effects on player performance and overall health. Symptoms of concussions may include headache, dizziness, confusion, nausea, sensitivity to light or noise, and changes in mood or behavior. However, it's essential to note that symptoms can vary widely among individuals, and some players may not exhibit overt signs of injury immediately following an incident.

Moreover, repeated exposure to head impacts, even those classified as mild concussions, can increase the risk of long-term cognitive impairment and neurological disorders, such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). CTE, a progressive degenerative disease linked to repetitive head trauma, has been a growing concern in soccer, particularly among retired players. While CTE is oftentimes associated with American football and rugby- high contact sports- AP News reports “Cases among soccer players — at least in the United States — have been less common, but researchers expect the numbers to increase now that those who began playing the growing sport as children are reaching old age,” and CTE diagnosis of former soccer players have indeed continued to climb each year.


The exact mechanisms underlying CTE are still being researched, but studies have shown a correlation between years of playing soccer, frequency of heading, and the likelihood of developing the condition later in life. Neurology Journals, for example, cites, “Among professional soccer players, performance on memory, planning, and visuoperceptual tasks were inversely related to the number of concussions incurred in soccer and the frequency of "heading" the ball. Performance on neuropsychological testing also varied according to field position, with forward and defensive players exhibiting more impairment.”


The recognition and management of TBIs in soccer present unique challenges due to the fast-paced nature of the sport and the potential for underreporting of injuries. Immediate sideline assessment and evaluation by qualified medical personnel are essential for accurate diagnosis and appropriate management of TBIs. Additionally, players, coaches, and medical staff must be vigilant in monitoring for signs and symptoms of TBIs, ensuring that affected individuals receive timely medical attention and follow proper protocols for return to play.

Furthermore, the risk of head injuries transcends professional play and extends to players of all ages and skill levels. Youth soccer, in particular, faces unique challenges due to the developing brains and bodies of young athletes. Concussion Legacy Foundation states, “Research has shown that over 30% of concussions in soccer are caused by heading the ball or by attempting to head the ball and colliding with a player, object, or the ground” and that “11% of children who suffer a concussion still have symptoms three months later” (Concussion Legacy White Paper). Such alarming statistics have alarmed even professionals of the sport. U.S. Soccer legend Brandi Chastain, has been advocating for a safer approach to the sport by eliminating heading until the age of 14. While injuries can still happen to older athletes, “There is evidence that having a strong neck may help reduce risk of concussion by reducing head acceleration caused by an impact. Younger athletes typically have weaker necks, which could put an athlete at higher risk for concussion.” Thus, delaying heading as an option in the sport could prevent serious injuries to the most vulnerable players.


In summary, traumatic brain injuries represent a significant concern in soccer, with the potential for both short-term and long-term consequences on player health and well-being. By understanding the nature of TBIs, raising awareness of their prevalence and impact, and implementing proactive measures for prevention and management, we can strive to create a safer environment for soccer players of all ages and levels of play.

Brain Injury Prevention Strategies in Soccer

Despite the challenges posed by the sport's intensity and cultural factors, there are effective strategies that can be implemented to mitigate the risk of head trauma. By technique and rule adherence, stakeholders can work together to create a safer environment for soccer players. Let's explore some key strategies for preventing and managing head injuries in soccer:

Collision Awareness and Technique:

  • Proper body positioning: Coaches should emphasize teaching players how to position their bodies effectively during aerial duels, challenges for possession, and other high-intensity situations to minimize the risk of head-to-head or head-to-ground collisions.

  • Controlled aggression: Encouraging players to maintain control over their movements and avoid reckless challenges can help reduce the likelihood of collisions that may lead to head injuries.

  • Heading technique: While heading is a fundamental skill in soccer, coaches should educate players on proper heading technique to minimize the risk of head-to-ball collisions and associated injuries.

Rule Adherence and Enforcement:

  • Strict enforcement of rules: Referees play a crucial role in enforcing rules that prohibit dangerous play, such as high kicks, elbowing, or excessive force. Consistent enforcement of these rules helps deter reckless behavior and promotes player safety.

  • Punishment for infractions: Imposing appropriate penalties for rule violations, such as fouls or yellow cards, reinforces the consequences of dangerous play and encourages players to adhere to the rules.

  • Referee education: Providing referees with comprehensive training on identifying and penalizing dangerous play can enhance their ability to enforce rules effectively and protect players from potential injury.

  • Implementation of age restrictions on heading: Introducing age limits, such as delaying the allowance of heading until the age of 14, can be enforced to reduce the risk of head injuries in youth soccer.

Player Education and Advocacy:

  • Understanding of risks: Educating players about the potential risks of head injuries, including concussions, and the importance of reporting symptoms promptly can empower them to prioritize their safety.

  • Advocacy for safer play: Players, coaches, and administrators should actively promote a culture of respect and sportsmanship on and off the field, advocating for safer play and supporting initiatives aimed at reducing the incidence of head injuries.

  • Support for injured players: Ensuring that players who sustain head injuries receive prompt medical attention and appropriate care is essential for their recovery and well-being. Coaches and teammates should offer support and encouragement to injured players and prioritize their health above all else.

  • Education on neck strength: Emphasizing the importance of neck strength in reducing the risk of concussion and implementing exercises to strengthen neck muscles can be part of player education and training programs.

By implementing these proactive strategies and fostering a culture of safety and responsibility, stakeholders can work together to reduce the incidence of head injuries in soccer and create a safer and more enjoyable playing environment for all involved.

Post-Injury Management for Soccer Brain Injuries

Managing head injuries in soccer requires a comprehensive approach that encompasses recognition, evaluation, and rehabilitation. Post-injury management is crucial for ensuring the safety and well-being of players, as well as minimizing the risk of long-term complications. In this section, we explore the key components of post-injury management for soccer-related brain injuries, including symptom recognition, medical evaluation, and gradual return-to-play protocols. By understanding the importance of each aspect and implementing evidence-based practices, teams can effectively care for injured players and promote a culture of safety and support in the sport. Below are some ideas for improving injury management: 

Symptom Recognition: Educating players, coaches, and medical staff about the signs and symptoms of head injuries is essential for prompt identification and intervention. While some symptoms may be immediately apparent, such as loss of consciousness or disorientation, others may manifest more subtly and require careful observation. Common symptoms of head injuries in soccer include headache, dizziness, confusion, memory problems, sensitivity to light or noise, nausea, and changes in mood or behavior. Players should be encouraged to report any unusual sensations or symptoms to their coaches or medical personnel, and coaches should be trained to recognize potential signs of head trauma during practices and matches. By promoting awareness and vigilance, teams can ensure that affected individuals receive timely medical attention and appropriate care.

Medical Evaluation: Following a head injury, players should undergo thorough evaluation by qualified medical professionals to assess the severity of their condition and determine appropriate management strategies. This evaluation may include a comprehensive neurological examination, cognitive testing, imaging studies (such as CT or MRI scans), and assessment of balance and coordination. Timely diagnosis and treatment are critical for ensuring optimal outcomes and preventing further injury. Medical personnel should be trained to recognize the unique challenges of diagnosing and managing head injuries in soccer, including the potential for underreporting and the need for thorough assessment of symptoms and neurological function.

Gradual Return to Play: After a head injury, players should follow a structured return-to-play protocol under the guidance of healthcare providers. This protocol typically involves several stages, each with specific criteria for progression, to ensure that players can safely resume physical activity without exacerbating their symptoms or risking recurrent injury. The initial phase may involve rest and symptom management, followed by a gradual reintroduction of light aerobic exercise, sport-specific drills, and full-contact practice. Throughout this process, players should be monitored closely for any recurrence of symptoms or signs of neurological impairment. By gradually increasing the intensity and duration of activity while monitoring symptoms, players can undergo safe and effective rehabilitation and reduce the risk of recurrent injury. It's essential for coaches, players, and medical staff to collaborate closely throughout the return-to-play process, prioritizing player safety and well-being above all else.

While avoiding head injuries entirely is impossible, we can improve post-injury management. Creating a protocol for post-injury management is a crucial component of concussion care in soccer, requiring prompt recognition, comprehensive evaluation, and structured rehabilitation. By promoting awareness, education, and collaboration among players, coaches, and medical personnel, teams can ensure that head injuries are managed effectively and that players can safely return to play. By prioritizing player welfare and following evidence-based protocols, teams can create a supportive and protective environment for all athletes, promoting long-term health and well-being in soccer.

Partnering with Power of Patients® to Make Soccer Safer

Power of Patients®, a leading platform in concussion and TBI management, offers a holistic approach to promoting safety in soccer in addition to data-driven technologies for supporting players struggling to recover from traumatic head injuries. 

With its innovative features and user-friendly interface, Power of Patients® empowers players, coaches, and medical staff to prioritize player well-being on and off the field. At the core of Power of Patients® lies its virtual therapy dog, Sallie™, designed to aid individuals recovering from head injuries. The Sallie™ app serves as a trusted companion, guiding users through symptom tracking, management, and rehabilitation. Beyond symptom management, Power of Patients® provides a wealth of resources and support services to empower soccer players and their caregivers. From educational materials on head injury prevention to access to expert guidance from medical professionals, the platform equips users with the knowledge and tools needed to make informed decisions about their health. Start tracking and managing your symptoms today by registering here!

Additionally, Power of Patients® plays a pivotal role in advancing research and treatment strategies for head injuries in soccer. By aggregating and anonymizing user data, the platform contributes valuable insights into the epidemiology, progression, and management of head injuries in soccer. Researchers and healthcare providers leverage this data to inform clinical studies, develop innovative therapies, and improve patient outcomes. Together, with Power of Patients®, we can work towards creating a safer and more responsible environment for soccer players of all ages and skill levels for generations to come.

Empowering Change on and off the Field

Head injuries in soccer pose significant challenges that require collective action and collaboration. As the conversation around head injuries in soccer continues to evolve, it's essential to translate awareness into action. Proactive steps, including education, rule advocacy, cultural shift, community outreach, and research participation, are crucial for promoting safety and advocating for positive change within the soccer community. By empowering players, coaches, parents, and stakeholders to prioritize player well-being, we can ensure players can continue to enjoy the game they love while safeguarding their long-term health and well-being. 

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